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Identity and second language learning: Local Japanese learning Japanese in Hawai`i
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This is an ethnographic case study of four Japanese American university students studying the Japanese language in Hawai`i. Drawing on Rampton's (1990) concepts of language expertise, inheritance, and affiliation, this study investigates the role of the Japanese language in the construction of the students' identities. Moving beyond Rampton's discussion, the careful examination of the relationship between the individual students and their study of Japanese provides a more accurate understanding of these concepts. The findings reveal that the students' language inheritance and affiliation, which are understood as their "continuity" with other Japanese Americans in Hawai`i and their "connection" to the language and culture in Japan respectively, have different significance for each student. It is suggested that, by paying sufficient attention to these two aspects, which are both important factors in the construction of the students' identities, teachers can integrate the National Standards for Japanese into their classroom more successfully.

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Explicit instruction and JFL learners
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This paper reports on a semester-long study of the explicit instruction of Japanese discourse markers to English-speaking, intermediate learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language. It was found that the learners improved their use of DMs, particularly to manage fundamental aspects of their extended tellings: openings, presentation of content and closings.

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Explicit and incidental instruction and learner awareness
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Explicit instruction can facilitate learner awareness of the surface features of a language, but does not guarantee it. Similarly, learners in an incidental learning condition are not necessarily unaware. This study investigated the development of awareness, among Japanese ESL learners, of rules of thumb for the use of zero and definite articles with place names under an explicit instruction condition, in which learners were given the rules plus examples, and an incidental instruction condition, in which learners responded to sentences containing examples. All instruction was computerized. Instruction was given in English and was followed by a twenty-question debriefing interview conducted in the learners' L1 in order to assess their awareness. The findings show that awareness could develop under either condition, but that the explicit condition was much more facilitative. The study also found a very strong relationship between awareness and improved learner performance.

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In 1990, the Department of Education established the first Language Resource Centers (LRCs) at U.S. universities in response to the growing national need for expertise and competence in foreign languages. Now, twenty-five years later, Title VI of the Higher Education Act supports sixteen LRCs, creating a national network of resources to promote and improve the teaching and learning of foreign languages.

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